a) Chardonnay from California
b) Gewürztraminer from Alsace
c) Riesling Auslese
e) Sauvignon Blanc from France?
A) b, a, e, d, c
B) a, e, c, d, b
C) e, a, b, c, d
D) a, b, e, c, d
C) e, a, b, c, d (Sauvignon Blanc from France, Chardonnay from California, Gewürztraminer from Alsace, Riesling Auslese, Sauterne)
The second (don't worry, I'll get to the first in a moment) most important factor for determining your food and wine pairing for white wines is the dry/sweet factor (for red wines, it's the tannin level). Typically, the drier the wine, the higher the acid level. You either want to mirror the acid level or go for a wine that is sweeter than the food. If your food is sweeter than the wine, the wine will taste more acidic. If a food has high acid (i.e. vinegars and citrus elements), then you will want to match its acid level.
The most important element is body. Light, crisp and clean wines can cut through many foods' richness, fullness, butter, creaminess, etc. Light, crisp and clean wines also allow a delicate food to speak while the wine is gently nudging it along. Fuller foods pair well with fuller bodied wines. This is why sometime you could pair a lighter red with a fuller bodied fish or a big, full-bodied white with veal. There is a crossover of the bigger whites and the lighter reds.
These two elements should get you started on food and wine pairing. There are more elements to consider, but these two are the most important. Try conducting your own test at home to check these theories. Let me know what you tried and what the results were. Taste, taste, and more tasting—it's the only (and most fun) way to learn.